Researchers brave brutal conditions to research climate change in Antarctica: Part 1

ABC News’ James Longman joins a team of researchers as they use state-of-the-art technology to collect critical data from whales in the region, under pressure from a human-altered climate.

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24 thoughts on “Researchers brave brutal conditions to research climate change in Antarctica: Part 1

  1. According to the Vostok Ice Core Records, CO2 level changes have followed Earth's overall temperature changes at an 800 year lag for the last 800,000 years. That means that our current CO2 levels are the result of Earth's overall temperature 800 years ago. World leaders have convinced their dependents that this works in the reverse order, relatively quickly, and that we are to blame, so that they can tax us out of a false shared guilt in order to be able to afford to "fight" climate change, an unstoppable natural cycle. The following is the source of this information:

    Historical Carbon Dioxide Record from the Vostok Ice Core

    Investigators
    J.-M. Barnola, D. Raynaud, C. Lorius
    Laboratoire de Glaciologie et de Géophysique de l'Environnement,
    CNRS, BP96,
    38402 Saint Martin d'Heres Cedex, France

    N.I. Barkov
    Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute,
    Beringa Street 38, 199397,
    St. Petersburg, Russia

    Period of Record
    417,160 – 2,342 years BP

    Methods
    In January 1998, the collaborative ice-drilling project between Russia, the United States, and France at the Russian Vostok station in East Antarctica yielded the deepest ice core ever recovered, reaching a depth of 3,623 m (Petit et al. 1997, 1999). Ice cores are unique with their entrapped air inclusions enabling direct records of past changes in atmospheric trace-gas composition. Preliminary data indicate the Vostok ice-core record extends through four climate cycles, with ice slightly older than 400 kyr (Petit et al. 1997, 1999). Because air bubbles do not close at the surface of the ice sheet but only near the firn-ice transition (that is, at ~90 m below the surface at Vostok), the air extracted from the ice is younger than the surrounding ice (Barnola et al. 1991). Using semiempirical models of densification applied to past Vostok climate conditions, Barnola et al. (1991) reported that the age difference between air and ice may be ~6000 years during the coldest periods instead of ~4000 years, as previously assumed. Ice samples were cut with a bandsaw in a cold room (at about -15°C) as close as possible to the center of the core in order to avoid surface contamination (Barnola et al. 1983). Gas extraction and measurements were performed with the "Grenoble analytical setup," which involved crushing the ice sample (~40 g) under vacuum in a stainless-steel container without melting it, expanding the gas released during the crushing in a pre-evacuated sampling loop, and analyzing the CO2 concentrations by gas chromatography (Barnola et al. 1983). The analytical system, except for the stainless-steel container in which the ice was crushed, was calibrated for each ice sample measurement with a standard mixture of CO2 in nitrogen and oxygen. For further details on the experimental procedures and the dating of the successive ice layers at Vostok, see Barnola et al. (1987, 1991), Lorius et al. (1985), and Petit et al. (1999).

    Trends
    There is a close correlation between Antarctic temperature and atmospheric concentrations of CO2 (Barnola et al. 1987). The extension of the Vostok CO2 record shows that the main trends of CO2 are similar for each glacial cycle. Major transitions from the lowest to the highest values are associated with glacial-interglacial transitions. During these transitions, the atmospheric concentrations of CO2 rises from 180 to 280-300 ppmv (Petit et al. 1999). The extension of the Vostok CO2 record shows the present-day levels of CO2 are unprecedented during the past 420 kyr. Pre-industrial Holocene levels (~280 ppmv) are found during all interglacials, with the highest values (~300 ppmv) found approximately 323 kyr BP. When the Vostok ice core data were compared with other ice core data (Delmas et al. 1980; Neftel et al. 1982) for the past 30,000 – 40,000 years, good agreement was found between the records: all show low CO2 values [~200 parts per million by volume (ppmv)] during the Last Glacial Maximum and increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations associated with the glacial-Holocene transition. According to Barnola et al. (1991) and Petit et al. (1999) these measurements indicate that, at the beginning of the deglaciations, the CO2 increase either was in phase or lagged by less than ~1000 years with respect to the Antarctic temperature, whereas it clearly lagged behind the temperature at the onset of the glaciations.

    References
    Barnola, J.-M., D. Raynaud, A. Neftel, and H. Oeschger. 1983. Comparison of CO2 measurements by two laboratories on air from bubbles in polar ice. Nature 303:410-13.

    Barnola, J.-M., D. Raynaud, Y.S. Korotkevich, and C. Lorius. 1987. Vostok ice core provides 160,000-year record of atmospheric CO2. Nature 329:408-14.

    Barnola, J.-M., P. Pimienta, D. Raynaud, and Y.S. Korotkevich. 1991. CO2-climate relationship as deduced from the Vostok ice core: A re-examination based on new measurements and on a re-evaluation of the air dating. Tellus 43(B):83- 90.

    Delmas, R.J., J.-M. Ascencio, and M. Legrand. 1980. Polar ice evidence that atmospheric CO2 20,000 yr BP was 50% of present. Nature 284:155-57.

    Jouzel, J., C. Lorius, J.R. Petit, C. Genthon, N.I. Barkov, V.M. Kotlyakov, and V.M. Petrov. 1987. Vostok ice core: A continuous isotopic temperature record over the last climatic cycle (160,000 years). Nature 329:403-8.

    Lorius, C., J. Jouzel, C. Ritz, L. Merlivat, N.I. Barkov, Y.S. Korotkevich, and V.M. Kotlyakov. 1985. A 150,000-year climatic record from Antarctic ice. Nature 316:591-96.

    Neftel, A., H. Oeschger, J. Schwander, B. Stauffer, and R. Zumbrunn. 1982. Ice core measurements give atmospheric CO2 content during the past 40,000 yr. Nature 295:220-23.

    Pepin, L., D. Raynaud, J.-M. Barnola, and M.F. Loutre. 2001. Hemispheric roles of climate forcings during glacial-interglacial transitions as deduced from the Vostok record and LLN-2D model experiments. Journal of Geophysical Research 106 (D23): 31,885-31,892.

    Petit, J.R., I. Basile, A. Leruyuet, D. Raynaud, C. Lorius, J. Jouzel, M. Stievenard, V.Y. Lipenkov, N.I. Barkov, B.B. Kudryashov, M. Davis, E. Saltzman, and V. Kotlyakov. 1997. Four climate cycles in Vostok ice core. Nature 387: 359-360.

    Petit, J.R., J. Jouzel, D. Raynaud, N.I. Barkov, J.-M. Barnola, I. Basile, M. Benders, J. Chappellaz, M. Davis, G. Delayque, M. Delmotte, V.M. Kotlyakov, M. Legrand, V.Y. Lipenkov, C. Lorius, L. Pépin, C. Ritz, E. Saltzman, and M. Stievenard. 1999. Climate and atmospheric history of the past 420,000 years from the Vostok ice core, Antarctica. Nature 399: 429-436.

    Raynaud, D., and J.-M. Barnola. 1985. An Antarctic ice core reveals atmospheric CO2 variations over the past few centuries. Nature 315:309-11.

    CITE AS: Barnola, J.-M., D. Raynaud, C. Lorius, and N.I. Barkov. 2003. Historical CO2 record from the Vostok ice core. In Trends: A Compendium of Data on Global Change. Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, U.S. Department of Energy, Oak Ridge, Tenn., U.S.A.

    Revised February 2003

  2. Only one planet we know of in the Universe with life., and we are trashing it like the scrum we are. Are galaxy is 100 light years across. ( that means if you traveled 186,000 miles an hour , it would take a hundred years to reach the other side) so their is NO. Where else to go. They say sea levels are rising…I live near the beach and personally it looks like it did when I was a kid….I don't see it rising here .I could be wrong,, am I'm missing something here?? I know it appears levers are rising in Australia and islands are starting to go under https://youtu.be/N1cdCUZNh04

    I thought water seeks its own level and if it were rising there it should be here to. Maybe its rising so slow I can't tell. If you know let me KNOW. I would like to know what I'm missing . IF emissions. Cause this then we should all drive smart cars….cause u know we will never give up are cars even if we could prove emissions cause climate change. How does TAXING THE DEVIL OUT OF PEOPLE HELP ANYWAY????? We know the 🌞 SUN has cycles from ice core samples. I think its planet x .(which has yet to be discovered but researchers at cal.tech believe its there by way of mathematical observation and they are discovering new planets everyday so it in the realm of possibility before you call me a nutt job.) has a gravitational pull on are solar system.That's why MARS is starting to grow ice caps. I Don't believe we are heading towards global warming I think its the exact opposite and that we are heading towards global COOLING. WE were warming and now the tide has changed. The electric universe theory says our sun is NOT powered by HYDROGEN (because the sun is cool in the center and hydrogen doesn't burn that cool)but by electric particles from space . So my thoughts are……the farther planet x is away the warmer we are …..and the closer it gets the cooler we get. Ancient translations say planter x is greatly bigger than our planet and its 🌞 SUN (most solar systems have 2 suns btw. , just because we haven't discovered it yet doesn't mean its not there) is vastly larger than ours. The closer its sun gets the more it will stave our sun of energy. Meaning that our sun basically has its own seasons which in turn effects our planet and us. We are trashing are planet because we are ADDICTED to the easy good life.

  3. Humans will leave earth and colonize on Mars of course. But I don’t know when but human will revisit earth when we’ve moved to Mars, we’re talking maybe hundreds or thousands of years from now. But we’re gonna leave and we’re gonna come back

  4. this is kind of wasteful trip. the money could be used on planting forests. but instead lets use that money to witness the doom more clearly, and so we can fly and use more CO2 in uninhabited areas on closer range.

  5. Zzzzzzzzz…..its a cycle, has happened millions of times throughout earth's existence…see ppl, they have NO IDEA how the earth's atmosphere was 300 million yrs ago or later, just think about it for a second; 300 million yrs ago….or more….NOT A CLUE, only speculation on what's going on. It's all a hoax ppl, they dont have a clue what will happen….its a guess at doom and gloom!

  6. How is climate denial not illegal, punishable by jail? When climate change literally is the holocaust that we can avoid if we act NOW! ON ALL levels, from consumers to manufacturing as well as logistics.

  7. Climate change has been occurring for over 4 billion years. And in the 3.5 billion years of life, 99% of species that have ever existed have gone extinct. It's a natural occurrence.
    While we need to be far more responsible, it's a huge lie-by-omission to say humans are entirely responsible for climate change.

  8. Climate change such a lie! Mankind is killing earth with disasters like Fukushima pouring deadly radiation into our ocean and air since 3/11/11, earlier above ground nuclear tests, continual creation of nuclear for military industrial complex and the insane disposal of nuclear and chemical waste that continues like years of dumping it in the Aleutian Trench “just to name one!” Radioactive and biological dumped everywhere on the planet – Dugway Proving Ground in Utah, the Chemical burn plant right next to it in Utah, blowing straight into Salt Lake City and the Wasatch Front where cancer is more prevalent than the common cold! Dragerton Utah-another toxic waste dump, Nameless Indian reservations, The Marshall Islands, Arco Idaho! Santa Nofre, Hanford, Chernobyl! China blows up a chemical plant almost weekly! Constant dumping of human and toxic waste globally into our rivers and oceans; Fracking is destroying our water aquifers, BP oil disaster has destroyed the entire Gulf of Mexico, Oil spills and blown up tankers and oil lines in the Middle East and globally, and southern coastal waters of the USA destroyed by the BP/natural gas disaster! and nothing can turn our irresponsible behavior around as long as greed and lack of conscience rules this Earth! We continue to poison the planet. Humans are the disease! Let’s talk about the Monsanto poisons in the whales, purposeful soaking all seeds with Monsanto Roundup ready poison which is basically Agent Orange used now by most USA farmers and once planted – permanently contaminates the soil or field! Atleast Russia has the good sense not to poison their crops! Agent Orange and Round up is a defoliant that killed our combat veterans and the people and land of Vietnam forever poisoning their land; Toxic islands of plastic – miles wide in our oceans poisoning our fish, bird life and oceans as well as rivers and ground water as this sickening Plastics , batteries, household and industrial chemicals are buried in landfills leaching into all our water sources! Our generation born in the 30’s,40’s 50’s and later have exterminated millions of species gone extinct in less than 50 years! The Honey bees are extinct- when introduced by breeders they cannot live a season on nstural flowers and blooms because of Poisoned Monsanto seeds!
    Let’s talk about weather manipulation damaging the jet stream, (DEW) Direct Energy Weapons from Drones and Satellites causing unnatural fires and disrupted ocean currents from HAARP and military electromagnetic and sound frequency weapons that disrupt animal migrations. Total loss of millions of birds and fish species both ocean and lake species and 5G is a weapon. A.I. Technology is totally out of control as stated by Elon Musk. Something can be done- we just need to STOP!
    Funding study’s documenting our demise of this human disasterous behavior on the planet is doing nothing to change it!!!
    We have to stop living in “The Culture of Death! As quoted by Artist Thomas Ackermann.
    🌎☄️🙏🏻

  9. As proof of climate change, we need to shoot whales with crossbows mates. There; the whale is communicating in an ultrasonic frequency that he's angry that the ocean temperature has skyrocketed up 0.001° F over the last 100 years. Cheerio.

  10. Why is everyone so afraid to get old and, or die? I dont get it. Get over yourselves, as this is exactly what evolution does….hits a peak, ages, then begins to devolute. Oh my, all the kids?!?!?!?!? Yeah right. Life is finite accept it. And things will be so much sweeter. Hate to say it, this guy on thevideo is a fool. A whales blubber is waaaaaay more inside the limits of the several layers of skin and such…than 4 or 5 inches. More than likely. Uh, cannot wait to simply see all of this from a nother perspective. Yes the Georgia Stones were and are correct. To a point. About a lot of things they mention. Start the cull with murderers, rapists, pedos and gang members. Go from there. See how easy it will be. Truly. 🙄

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